(: September 20, 2019)
Did you know that you can now manage Kali Linux Virtual instance with Vagrant?. Being a huge fan of Kali Linux, I’m happy to share with you a process of running Kali Linux with Vagrant & VirtualBox hypervisor. Kali Linux is the leading advanced Penetration Testing and Security Auditing Operating system based on Debian.
Kali Linux contains several hundred tools geared toward computer Forensics, Penetration Testing, Reverse Engineering, Security research. Kali development is funded and maintained by Offensive Security, a leading information security training company.
For those new to Vagrant, Vagrant is an open source tool for building and managing virtual machine environments in an easy-to-use single workflow.
- Any decent Linux distribution – Debian, Ubuntu, Arch, Fedora e.t.c
- CPU with VT-X/AMD Virtualization extensions
- VirtualBox and Vagrant installed
Step 1: Install Vagrant and VirtualBox
To install Vagrant and VirtualBox, refer to our previous guides:
Step 2: Download Kali Vagrant box
After installing VirtualBox and Vagrant, download Kali Linux Vagrant box image. You have two options for this.
- Download Kali Linux full image – comes with all Kali packages
- Download Kali Linux Light – contains stripped down package list
Download Vagrant box using the command:
$ vagrant box add offensive-security/kali-linux ==> box: Loading metadata for box 'offensive-security/kali-linux' box: URL: https://vagrantcloud.com/offensive-security/kali-linux ==> box: Adding box 'offensive-security/kali-linux' (v2018.3.1) for provider: virtualbox box: Downloading: https://vagrantcloud.com/offensive-security/boxes/kali-linux/versions/2018.3.1/providers/virtualbox.box ==> box: Box download is resuming from prior download progress ==> box: Successfully added box 'offensive-security/kali-linux' (v2018.3.1) for 'virtualbox'!
For Kali Linux Light, replace
$ vagrant box add offensive-security/kali-linux-light ==> box: Loading metadata for box 'offensive-security/kali-linux-light' box: URL: https://vagrantcloud.com/offensive-security/kali-linux-light ==> box: Adding box 'offensive-security/kali-linux-light' (v2018.3.1) for provider: virtualbox box: Downloading: https://vagrantcloud.com/offensive-security/boxes/kali-linux-light/versions/2018.3.1/providers/virtualbox.box ==> box: Successfully added box 'offensive-security/kali-linux-light' (v2018.3.1) for 'virtualbox'!
The added Vagrant boxes should be visible from
$ vagrant box list | grep offensive offensive-security/kali-linux (virtualbox, 2018.3.1) offensive-security/kali-linux-light (virtualbox, 2018.3.1)
Step 3: Start Kali Linux virtual machine
Start by creating an empty directory for Kali project and then generate a Vagrant file from there:
$ mkdir -p vagrant-projects/kali $ cd vagrant-projects/kali $ vagrant init offensive-security/kali-linux A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on `vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.
This command generates a
Vagrantfile for you which contains all the configuration options for the virtual machine. It is worth knowing that every
vagrant command should be run from the directory containing Vagrantfile.
You can modify the file to your liking before running the
vagrant up command:
# -*- mode: ruby -*- # vi: set ft=ruby : Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| config.vm.box = "offensive-security/kali-linux" config.vm.box_check_update = false config.vm.hostname = "kali" config.vm.synced_folder "/home/jmutai/Projects", "/vagrant_data" config.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |vb| # Display the VirtualBox GUI when booting the machine vb.gui = false vb.memory = "2048" end end
When done with the modifications, save the file and run
$ vagrant up
Here is a sample output
Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider... ==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces... ==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration... default: Adapter 1: nat default: Adapter 2: hostonly ==> default: Forwarding ports... default: 22 (guest) => 2222 (host) (adapter 1) ==> default: Running 'pre-boot' VM customizations... ==> default: Booting VM... ==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes... default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222 default: SSH username: vagrant default: SSH auth method: private key default: default: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace default: this with a newly generated keypair for better security. default: default: Inserting generated public key within guest... default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present... default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key... ==> default: Machine booted and ready! ==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM... ==> default: Setting hostname... ==> default: Configuring and enabling network interfaces... ==> default: Mounting shared folders... default: /vagrant => /home/jmutai/hacks/vagrant/labs/kali default: /vagrant_data => /home/jmutai/Projects
To access the VM shell, run:
$ vagrant ssh
You can also use your host
ssh client and access the Kali Linux instance shell through assigned private IP address.
$ ssh [email protected] Warning: Permanently added '192.168.90.99' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts. [email protected]'s password: Linux kali 4.18.0-kali1-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 4.18.6-1kali1 (2018-09-10) x86_64 The programs included with the Kali GNU/Linux system are free software; the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright. Kali GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by applicable law. Last login: Fri Oct 19 15:20:41 2018 from 10.0.2.2 [email protected]:~$
If you check instance IP addresses, the one configured on Vagrantfile should be available.
Whenever you make a change to the Vagrantfile, restart the machine for the changes to take effect.
$ vagrant reload
To stop the instance, use
$ vagrant halt
If you would like to save the current state of the VM while stopping it, use
$ vagrant suspend
With this, you’ll return to exactly the same state at a later time when VM is started.
Destroy the Vagrant machine when done by running
$ vagrant destroy
In this guide, we have shown you how to manage Kali Linux instance with Vagrant. Don’t forget to check out the official documentation for more Vagrant configuration options.
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